Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12458/318
Title: Land use and limitations in the sinkhole and polje karst of the Ksiromero Region, Western Greece
Authors: Veni, George 
Kosmas Pavlopoulos 
Deligianni, Miljana Golubović 
Issue Date: 2013
Journal: Carbonates and Evaporites 
Abstract: Ksiromero occupies an area of 107 km2 in the northeast section of the Prefecture of Aitoloakarnania in western Greece. Its karst is developed primarily on beds of 10-200 m thick Triassic carbonate breccia conglomerates which underlie 70 % of the region. Other karstified units overly 200-300 m thick sequences of upper Triassic to early Jurassic limestones and dolomites and an underlying 150 m thick Triassic gypsum deposit. Major karst features include sinkholes and poljes that capture all surface water. Open caves and conduits are rare due to in-fill by residual terra rossa soils. "Ksiromero" is Greek for "dry place." While in one of the wetter regions of Greece, with a mean annual precipitation of 962-1,040 mm and a mean evapotranspiration rate of 47 %, no perennial springs are known, surface water is rare, and accessible groundwater is minimal. Some shallow wells in the breccia conglomerate serve as small, local water supplies. Geochemical analyses of water samples from two wells show significant differences due to aquifer type (limestone versus terra rossa) but groundwater is suitable at least for irrigation and livestock and probably human consumption. Generally, domestically used water is supplied to Ksiromero from a neighboring region. Water for agriculture is stored in more than 75 reservoirs, some of which are natural sinkholes but most are excavated in terra rossa soils of poljes and large sinkholes. Shallow groundwater occurs in some of these reservoirs, as well as seasonally captured storm water, but much is pumped in from the adjacent region or from nearby wells. This system is adequate for the area's modest water needs, but not for potential increased demand. Most land use is farming and pasture, and limited to the relatively flat floors of sinkholes and poljes. The absence of sanitary landfills and other agricultural contaminants potentially threaten groundwater quality, but the impacts are not presently quantifiable due to insufficient aquifer characterization. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12458/318
ISSN: 0891-2556
1878-5212
DOI: 10.1007/s13146-013-0133-x
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